Placenta | Definition, Anatomy and Functions


Placenta Definition

What is Placenta: It is basically a structure that is responsible for not only provide nutrients as well as protecting the site for a developing fetus during the gestation time period. It is inimitable as well as it is a momentary organ within the female body. Throughout the pregnancy, the period fetus grows, and then it is debarred sideways with the fetus at the time of birth. The placentas are correspondingly known as “Afterbirth,” because it is ejected by the vaginal site subsequently when the fetus has been delivered out from the female body.

It accomplishes numerous functions during the pregnancy time period. It helps in fetal growth, smoothing blood drift, gas conversation, waste eradication, and plateful as a defending barricade for the fetus in contradiction of any contaminations. The placenta is an exceptional organ that comes from two discrete organisms. One portion of the Placenta originates from the mother’s uterine wall tissues. On the other hand, another portion of it originated by the own tissues of the fetus. Inside the fetus after this blastocyst will mature and originate the connection with the wall of the uterus. Later on, maternal tissue and blastocyst nurture together.


When does Placenta  form:

Placenta totally develops by week 18–20 of pregnancy, however, it continues to grow to support the baby’s oxygen, growing nutrition, and immunity needs.

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What is Placenta Previa

Placenta Previa

Placenta Previa may be a condition wherever the placenta lies low within the womb and partially or fully covers the cervix. The placenta might separate from the uterine wall because the cervix begins to dilate (open) during labor.

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Abruptio Placenta

Abruptio placentae are defined as the premature separation of the placenta from the womb. Patients with abruptio placentae, conjointly known as placental disruption, generally present with hemorrhage, uterine contractions, and fetal distress. A major reason for third-trimester hemorrhage related to fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality, placental abruption should be thought of whenever hemorrhage is encountered in the second half of pregnancy.

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Placental Mammals

Placental Mammals are those animals that stretch birth to animate, developed offspring besides leaving eggs or booming immature offspring in their pouches. Its evolution basically prime physiognomies which is communal by wholly mammals excluding for egg-laying and marsupials for example Platypus.


During the gestation time if the placenta does not develop properly stereotypically miscarriage. This either might be due to complications in the maternal tissue of uterus or might be due to glitches in the growth of the placental tissue of the fetus. If the fetus faces any sort of chromosomal hitches, that cannot able to create suitable placenta and later on miscarriage may take place.

Placenta Function

It acts as a lifeline between the mother and fetus, making certain that the fetus gets what it wants from the mother’s body to survive. At a similar time, it acts as a protecting barrier, shielding the fetus from some maternal infections. The functions of the placenta include:

  1. Allows gas exchange that the fetus gets enough oxygen for proper growth and development
  2. Helps the fetus get ample amount of nutrition
  3. Helps regulate the fetus’ temperature at an optimum degree
  4. Removes waste from the fetus for the various process by the mother’s body
  5. Filters out some microbe’s micro-organisms which may cause infection
  6. Transfers antibodies from the mother to the fetus, conferring some immune protection
  7. Produces hormones that keep the mother’s body in order to support maternity physiological state
  8. It basically serves the platform of various organ systems for the fetus, since the fetus is unable to eat, breathe, or eliminate waste itself whereas it’s within the womb.


Unfortunately, it isn’t fool-proof as a removable organ which as an infection barrier, but very few of the fetuses do become infected with diseases shrunken by their mother. Toxins of sufficiently very small molecular size may also enter in the fetus through it. That’s one reason why pregnant ladies are prescribed to avoid all attainable sources of illness and toxins – diseases and toxins that may not be dangerous the least bit too adult ladies can also be devastating to a developing fetus.

Types of Placenta

There are various types, that may vary from species to species. Its types are given below:



Nearly the Allantochorion whole surface is intricate in the development of the placenta. It is commonly perceived in pigs and horses.


In this formation of Cotyledons are done a collaboration of patches of Allantochorion with the layer called Endometrium. Cotyledons are the manifold, distinct areas of attachment. This type is, termed as Cotyledons. This category of placentation is seen in Ruminants.


In this type, the fetus is surrounded by incomplete or complete crews or tissue bands. This type of placental arrangement is observed by all carnivorous animals like cats, dogs, seals, elephants, and bears.


In this type, the solo placenta is molded and it is discoid in shape. Seen in primates and rodents.

Placenta Anatomy

When it’s delivered, it appears like a flat, spherical organ that’s distributed with thick blood vessels. The fetus’ epithelial duct called Umbilical Cord attaches to at least one flat surface, whereas the reverse surface grows out of the mother’s female internal reproductive organ throughout the gestation time period.

It works primarily by permitting substances to be interchanged between mother and fetus or developing embryo blood. This Permits the fetus to attain nutrients, oxygen, antibodies, and different crucial substances without having to share the mother’s bloodstream nonstop.


Placenta Structure


Placenta Position

Inside the Uterus, it has the ability to attach anywhere to nurture or provide food to the developing baby. Frequently positions of the placentas are either at the topmost or adjacent side of the uterus.

But there is always a big likelihood that it will attach to the stomach front side. Due to this condition placenta is known as Anterior Placentas.

But if it is attached to the uterus backside, adjacent to your vertebral column. Than this placenta is named as Posterior Placenta.

Placenta Anterior

It is a delicate organ that grows within the womb throughout gestation time duration to nourish the baby with oxygen and nutrients via the specialized structure called Umbilical Cord. It attaches itself to the wall of the womb. Anterior placenta term is used in medical terms for a placenta that connects to the front of the womb. And anterior placenta will be able to sit between the front of the abdomen and embryo. Most of the time, an embryo can implant on the backside of the Uterus wall. whenever this happens, the placenta usually forms at that wall similarly. Doctors prescribed this as posterior placentas. Sometimes, having the anterior placenta might create it more durable for a lady to feel fetus movements. In some cases, it will create it more difficult for a medical specialist to observe a developing baby’s heartbeat.

Placental Development


Placenta Eating

Various animals and few human nations make a repetition of the consumption of the placentas when after it is delivered out from the female body. Scientists are alienated from this practice either it is good or not. Although the placentas consist of appreciated nutrients and a huge number of hormones. These hormones are very beneficial for the female after giving birth to the baby. Rather than this, some medical officers thought this rehearsal might transmit infectious diseases. So there are no benefits for humans.

Numerous superstars have contracted with many companies to crack or transform their placentas for medicinal purposes. In wildlife, animals habitually consume their placentas.

Placenta Recipes

This is beneficial for the animals because in nature there is a little amount of food for ingestion. At this placenta is the best source of Protein, Iron, lipids and other nutrients for animals. Various surgeons warned that the placenta is basically human tissues so it should strictly be prohibited by Human beings. Because it may spread diseases.

What is the Umbilical Cord

The umbilical cord is basically a link among developing fetus and mother. Generally, the umbilical cord performs these major occupations. It provides oxygen to the fetus. It transfers nutrients and helps to extract carbon dioxide-rich blood from the fetus.

Placenta Recipes

The Function of Umbilical Cord

The umbilical cord performs the following distinct functions.

  1. It helps to nourish the fetus with blood.
  2. It is specifically significant because during the gestation time period the fetus is incapable to respire at its own self. Fetus attains oxygen to respire from mother by this cord.
  3. During pregnancy time, the period fetus cannot able to ingest food directly so that the developing fetus gets food in the form of nutrients such as fats, proteins, vitamins.
  4. Umbilical cord similarly aids in the transmission of surplus products and deoxygenated blood away from the developing fetus.