Ear | Definition, Anatomy & Ear Infection



Ear Definition

Ear detects sound energy so that we can hear. They are also sensitive to the position and movements of the head. As a result, the ear is not only the organ for hearing, but it also controls Our sense of balance.

Ear Parts

There are three main parts:

  1. The Outer Ear
  2. The Middle Ear
  3. The Inner Ear

Physiology of Ear

Its physiology� is described below:

External or Outer Ear

It is comprised of Pinna or Auricle. This is the exterior fragment.

Next to this Peripheral Auditory Canal or Tube is present which attaches the Outer Ear to Middle Ear.

After this Tympanic membrane which is also known as Eardrum is present. The Tympanic Membrane gulfs the exterior to the intermediate Ears.

Middle Ear

It is also known as Tympanic Cavity comprised of Ossicles. Three trivial bones which are linked and convey the sound waves to the Inner Ears.

Three bones are named called:

  1. Malleus
  2. Incus
  3. Stapes

Further Eustachian tube is present. Eustachian tube basically channel that joins the Middle Ears to the posterior of the nose. The eustachian tube helps to equalize the pressure in the middle ears. Equalized pressure is needed for the proper transfer of sound waves. The eustachian tube is lined with mucous, just like the inside of the nose and throat.

Inner Ear

It�comprised of:

  1. Cochlea
  2. Vestibule
  3. Semicircular Canals


Cochlea comprised of Nerves which are used for hearing.


The vestibule contains Receptors for sustaining the balance of the body.

Semicircular Canals

Semicircular Canals encompass Receptors for balancing the body.

Parts of the Ear and their Functions

It is the body part that is used for hearing voices and also helps to maintain balance. There are three main parts:

  1. The Outer Ear
  2. The Middle Ear
  3. The Inner Ear

Outer Ear

The outer part is of Pinna shape and specialized organ to collects sound. Sound trekking through the Auricle and then the Auditory Canal, which is a dumpy tube that tops at the Eardrum.

Middle Ear

After the Outer Ears, the next part is the Middle Ears. Which is the portion that presents between the Eardrum and the Oval Window. The main function of the Middle Ears conveys sound as of the Outer part to the Inner part. The Middle portion comprised of three bones:

  1. Hammer or Malleus
  2. Anvil or Incus
  3. Stirrup or Stapes

Inner Ear

The end part of the is the Inner part. Oval Window is a specialized part that joins the Middle part to the Inner part. Its main function is to refer information on equilibrium and skull position to the Brain.


External Ear Anatomy

The External part emanates in Shape and Size. The outer part has specialized edifice which helps to collect sound waves and provide each of us inimitable appearance. The outer part is also called Auricle or Pinna in the medical term.

The outer�part is composed of Cartilage bone and Skin.

Parts of the Outer Ear

Outer�part composed of three major parts:

  1. Tragus
  2. Helix
  3. lobule.


Middle Ear

The middle part is also known Tympanic Cavity. Tympanic cavity plays a significant role in an individual’s aptitude to Hear. Inside the Middle ears, three small bones or Ossicles are present which made cable and convey sound vibrations from the Eardrum to the Inner Ears. In the fluid-filled Inner Ears, sounds waves are transformed into Nerve Whims and referred to the Brain for processing.

Middle Ear Anatomy�����������

Tympanic Cavity is an air-filled cavity. It is also membrane-lined interplanetary cavity situated between the Ear Canal and the Eustachian Tube, Cochlea, and Auditory Nerve. The Eardrum splits this cavity from the Ear Canal. The cavity is under pressure area.

The Eardrum play a vital role as a usual borderline among the Middle part and the Ear Canal. Compression in the Middle Ears is preserved by Eustachian Tubes. That is padlocked when not in usage. When an individual swallow, the Eustachian tubes open or exposed and permit additional air to arrive into the Tympanic Cavity. This preserves a persistent compression gradient.

Sometimes, this pressure is not stabled with the atmosphere exterior to the Head, this is reason various people practice uneasiness in Aeroplan�s and at high places.


Human Ear Structure and Function

Its structure comprised of the following three main parts which are given below:

  1. External Ear
  2. Middle Ear
  3. Inner Ear
  • External part specialized for receiving the sound waves which comprised of following parts that are Auricle or Pinna and External Auditory Meatus.
  • Middle part comprised of Tympanic Membranes and Auditory Ossicles.
  • Inner part consists of Vestibules, Semicircular Canal and Cochlea.
  • The three Semicircular Canals are not concerned with hearing. Instead, they help us to balance.

How Ear Works�������

The part is one which we see is called the outer part. Because the outer part is funnel-shaped, it can collect sound waves Coming from moving objects. It focuses them on the eardrum inside the head. The eardrum then Vibrates, making a group of three tiny bones (called ossicles) that are attached to it vibrate as well. The three ossicles act as a lever and magnify the force of the vibrations moving the liquid inside the snail-shaped. the inner ears, or Cochlea.

The vibrations inside the cochlea make tiny hairs move. As these hairs are attached to nerves, every time they are vibrated, messages are sent to the brain. These nerve messages enable us to hear and understand sounds, including speech. This specialized organ and brain work together that can separate sounds depending on how loud they are or how: high or low. Having two ears, one on each side of the head helps us to tell the direction the sound is coming from, as it will be slightly louder in one ear than the other unless the sound is Straight ahead or immediately behind us.

Semicircular Canals are set at right angles to each other, so that no matter how the head is moved�up, down, left, or right�the fluid in the canals will also move. The pressure of this fluid stimulates the sensitive hairs �within the canals to send messages to the brain. If you spin rapidly and then stop, the fluid will carry on moving, making you feel giddy. You can stop this by suddenly jerking your head in the opposite direction. Two sacs join the cochlea to the semicircular canals and act as gravity detectors. They contain grains of chalk which move about as we tilt and trigger sensitive hairs. Continuous up-and-down movement over-stimulates the brain and this causes what is called seasickness.

How Ears Work�������


Ear Disease

Ears Diseases are known as those sicknesses or syndromes which disturb the Hearing power.


It is a thriving disease. Which can be due to Flashy Sounds, Medications or variability of supplementary causes.


Meniere’s Disease

It may be the consequence of runny liquid glitches in your Inner Ears. Its indications consist of Tinnitus and Dizziness.


Ear Barotrauma

It is a disease of Ears because of fluctuations in Barometric Air or Water Pressure

Ear Infection

The Ears are composed of three major parts. If any of three parts being disease-ridden by Bacteria, Fungi or Viruses infection might occur in that place. Children�s are predominantly susceptible to Middle Ears Infections. It is appraised that around four out of five offspring will experience middle ears contamination.

Ears infections are commonly divided into three groups:

  1. Acute otitis media (AOM)
  2. Otitis media with effusion (OME)
  3. Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME)

Acute Otitis media (AOM)

AOM is a very communal and slightest serious Ears Infection. In this condition, Middle Ears becomes disease-ridden and inflamed, and due to this liquid is entombed behind the Eardrum. By this Fever can also happen.

Otitis Media

Otitis Media with Effusion (OME)

After infection of the ears, might be some fluid left behind the Eardrum. A person suffering from this condition might not experience indications.

Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME)

COME states to fluid frequently recurring to the Middle Ears, deprived of any infection present. This might leads to a condensed capability to fight against other contaminations and has a harmful influence on hearing capability.

Ear Infection Symptoms������

The warning sign of an Ears Infection might have comprised of:

  1. Ears swear Ache
  2. Trifling Deafness
  3. Muffled Sensation
  4. Ears Emancipation
  5. Fever
  6. Headache
  7. Forfeiture of Appetite
  8. Itchiness in Outer Ears
  9. Swellings on the Outer Ears
  10. Bristles in Ears Canal
  11. Rackets in The Ears
  12. Buzzing or Humming in Ears
  13. Vertigo
  14. Loss of Balance.

Ear Infection Relief

Children under 6 months of age require Antibiotic action to support avert the inflectional spread. Amoxicillin is usually used as an Antibiotic for treating this.

Kids aged 6 months to 2 years, doctors characteristically indorse monitoring the child deprived of Antibiotics, except the youngster has signs of severe contamination.

Ears infections will habitually reduce or finished without treatment, and the solitary medicine essential for pain management. Antibiotics are solitary cast-off in supplementary severe or prolonged cases.

Ear Infection Toddler

Various ears infections occur to kids before they�ve erudite how to talk. Following symptoms might occur in toddlers having Ears Infection.

  1. Hauling or pulling of the Ears.
  2. Obsessiveness
  3. Crying
  4. Misfortune sleeping
  5. Fever
  6. Fluid running from the Ears
  7. Gaucheness
  8. Difficulty to maintain equilibrium
  9. Distress hearing

Swimmers Ear

Swimmer’s ears is an infection within the external ears canal, that runs from your tympanic membrane to the skin of your head. It’s typically brought on by water that is still in your ear when swimming, making a dampish atmosphere that aids microorganism growth.

Putting fingers, cotton swabs or different objects in your ears can also result in swimmer’s ears by damaging the skinny layer of skin lining your auditory canal.

Swimmer’s ears are additionally called otitis externa. the foremost common reason behind this infection is microorganism incursive the skin within your acoustic meatus. typically you’ll be able to treat swimmer’s ears with eardrops. Prompt treatment will facilitate forestall complications and more-serious infections.

Swimmer’s ears Symptoms:

Swimmer’s ears symptoms are sometimes delicate at the start, however, they’ll worsen if your infection isn’t treated or spreads. Doctors typically classify swimmer’s ears consistent with mild, moderate and advanced stages of progression.


Mild Signs and Symptoms of Swimmer’s Ears

  • Itching in your auditory canal
  • Slight redness within your ears
  • Mild discomfort that’s created worse by the pull on your external ears (pinna or auricle) or pushing on the small “bump” before of your ears (tragus)
  • Some evacuation of clear, odorless fluid

Moderate progression of Swimmer’s Ears

  • More-intense itchiness
  • Increasing pain
  • More-extensive redness in your ears
  • Excessive fluid evacuation
  • Feeling of fullness within your ears and partial blockage of your external auditory canal by swelling, fluid, and detritus
  • Decreased or muffled hearing

Advanced progression of Swimmer’s Ears

  • Severe pain which may radiate to your face, neck or facet of your head
  • Complete blockage of your external auditory canal
  • Redness or swelling of your external ears
  • Swelling within the lymph nodes in your neck
  • Fever

Swimmer’s Ears Treatment

The goal of treatment is to prevent the infection and permit your external auditory canal to heal.


Cleaning your external ears canal is important to assist eardrops to flow to all or any infected areas. Your doctor can use a suction device or ears surgical instrument to wash away discharge, clumps of wax, flaky skin and different rubble.

Swimmers Ears Drops

For most cases of swimmer’s ears, your doctor can prescribe eardrops that have some combination of the following ingredients, looking on the kind and seriousness of your infection:

  • The acidic solution to assist restore your ear’s traditional antibacterial drug surroundings
  • Steroid to scale back inflammation
  • Antibiotic to fight microorganism
  • Antifungal medication to fight infection caused by a Fungi.