Middle Ear | Anatomy and Physiology of Ear

Ear Definition

Our ear detects sound energy so that we can hear. They are also sensitive to the position and movements of the head. As a result, the ear is not only the organ for hearing, but it also controls Our sense of balance. Middle Ear anatomy is briefly described below:

Middle Ear

Ear Parts

There are three main parts of the Ear:

  1. The Outer Ear
  2. The Middle Ear
  3. The Inner Ear

Physiology of Ear

Physiology of the Ear is described below:

External or Outer Ear:

It comprised of Pinna or Auricle. This is the exterior fragment of the Ear.

Next to this Peripheral Auditory Canal or Tube is present which attaches the Outer Ear to Middle Ear.

After this Tympanic membrane which is also known as Eardrum is present. The Tympanic Membrane gulfs the exterior Ear from the intermediate Ear.

Middle Ear

Middle Ear:

It is also known as Tympanic Cavity comprised of Ossicles.

Three trivial bones which are linked and convey the sound waves to the Inner Ear.

Three bones are named called:

  1. Malleus
  2. Incus
  3. Stapes

Further Eustachian tube is present. Eustachian tube basically channel that joins the Middle Ear to the posterior of the nose. The eustachian tube helps to equalize the pressure in the middle ear. Equalized pressure is needed for the proper transfer of sound waves. The eustachian tube is lined with mucous, just like the inside of the nose and throat.

Middle Ear

Inner Ear:

It comprised of following parts:

  1. Cochlea
  2. Vestibule
  3. Semicircular Canals


Cochlea comprised of Nerves which are used for hearing.


The vestibule contains Receptors for sustaining the balance of the body.

Semicircular Canals

Semicircular Canals encompass Receptors for balancing the body.

Middle Ear

Parts of the Ear and their Functions

The ear is the body part is used for hearing voices and also help to maintain balance.

There are three main parts of the Ear:

  1. The Outer Ear
  2. The Middle Ear
  3. The Inner Ear

Middle Ear

Outer Ear

The outer Ear is of Pinna shape and specialized organ to collects sound. Sound trekking through the Auricle and then the Auditory Canal, which is a dumpy tube that tops at the Eardrum.

Middle Ear

After the Outer Ear, the next part is the Middle Ear. Which is the portion of the Ear present between the Eardrum and the Oval Window? The main function of the Middle Ear conveys sound as of the Outer Ear to the Inner Ear. The Middle Ear comprised of three bones:

  1. Hammer or Malleus
  2. Anvil or Incus
  3. Stirrup or Stapes

Inner Ear

The end part of the Ear is Inner Ear. Oval Window is a specialized part that joins the Middle Ear to the Inner Ear. Its main function is to refer information on equilibrium and skull position to the Brain.

External Ear Anatomy

The External Ear emanates in Shape and Size. Outer Ear has specialized edifice which helps to collect sound waves and provide each of us inimitable appearance. Outer Ear is also called Auricle or Pinna in the medical term.

The outer ear is composed of Cartilage bone and Skin.

Parts of the Outer Ear

Outer Ear composed of three major parts:

  1. Tragus
  2. Helix
  3. lobule.

Middle Ear

Middle Ear is also known Tympanic Cavity. Tympanic cavity plays a significant role in an individual’s aptitude to Hear. Inside the Middle ear, three small bones or Ossicles are present which made cable and convey sound vibrations from the Eardrum to the Inner Ear. In the fluid-filled Inner Ear, sounds waves are transformed into Nerve Whims and referred to the Brain for processing.

Middle Ear Anatomy�����������

Tympanic Cavity is an air-filled cavity. It is also membrane-lined interplanetary cavity situated between the Ear Canal and the Eustachian Tube, Cochlea, and Auditory Nerve. The Eardrum splits this cavity from the Ear Canal. The cavity is under pressure area.

The Eardrum play a vital role as a usual borderline among the Middle Ear and the Ear Canal. Compression in the Middle Ear is preserved by Eustachian Tubes. That is padlocked when not in usage. When an individual swallow, the Eustachian tubes open or exposed and permit additional air to arrive into the Tympanic Cavity. This preserves a persistent compression gradient.

Sometimes, this pressure is not stabled with the atmosphere exterior to the Head, this is reason various people practice uneasiness in Aeroplan�s and at high places.

Middle Ear