What is Metacognition?
Metacognition means “thinking about one’s own thinking”, “higher �order cognition about cognition”, “knowledge about knowledge”, “thoughts about thoughts” or “reflection about reflection Metacognition”
Definitions of metacognition
Hacker (2009) defined metacognition as, “Metacognition involves awareness of how they learn, an evaluation of their learning needs, generating strategies to meet these needs and then implementing the strategies”.
Flavell (1978) referred to it as “knowledge that takes as its object or regulates any aspect of any cognitive endeavor”.
Metacognition may be the immense word most of the people use it on a daily basis while not even noticing. Reflective on our own thoughts is, however, we tend to gain insight our feelings, needs, and behaviors and the way we tend to learn, manage and adapt to new experiences, challenges, and emotional setbacks. It is the running language we’ve in our heads, mentally sounding ourselves out and planning.
Metacognitive Strategies in Student Learning
Rosier (2017) gave seven strategies to advance the Metacognition:
Clarify Students How their Brains are Reinforced for Development and Growth
The beliefs that students adopt concerning learning and their own brains can have an effect on their performance. The analysis shows that once students develop a growth mental attitude vs. a hard and fast mindset, they’re a lot of seemingly to have interaction in reflective puzzling over however they learn and grow. Teaching youngsters regarding the science of metacognition will be an empowering tool, serving to students to know however they will virtually grow their own brains.2. Give students practice recognizing what they don’t understand
Provide Opportunities to Students to Imitate on Homework
Higher-order thinking skills are nurtured into the students. Students are able to cram and to identify their own cognitive growth. Questions that help this progression might be comprised of:
Before this course, I believed earthquakes were caused by _______. Now I understand that they are being resulted of _______.
Partake Students Preserve Educational Journals
One way to help students monitor their own thinking is through the practice of individual learning journals. Allocate them tabloid questions that help students to reflect on how rather than what they learned. Questions might include:
- What was calmest for me to learn this week? Why?
- What was most thought-provoking for me to learn? Why?
- What study strategies worked well as I prepared for my exam?
- What didn’t strategies for exam preparation work well? What will I do differently next time?
- What study habits worked best for me? How?
- What study habit will I try or improve upon next week?
Reassure imaginative expression through whatever journal presentations work best for learners, including mind maps, blogs, wikis, diaries, lists, e-tools, etc.
Practice a “wrapper” to surge students’ monitoring assistances or skills
A “wrapper” is a short intercession that surrounds a current activity and assimilates a metacognitive practice. Beforehand a lecture, for example, give a few guidelines about active listening. Succeeding the lecture, ask students to write down three key philosophies from the lecture. Afterward, share what you believe to be the three key ideas and ask students to self-check how closely theirs matched your proposed goals.
Consider essay vs. Multiple-choice exams
Research shows that students use lower-level thinking skills to arrange for multiple-choice exams, and higher-level metacognitive skills to organize for essay exams. whereas it’s less time intensive to grade multiple-choice queries, even the addition of many short essay queries will improve the approach students replicate on their learning to organize for check taking.
Ease the Reflexive Thinking
Reflexivity is the process of becoming aware of our biases — preconceptions that get in the way of the healthy development of mind. Teachers can make a classroom culture for more profound learning and reflexivity by encouraging dialogue that encounters human and societal biases. When students engage in conversations or write essays on biases and moral predicaments related to politics, wealth, racism, poverty, justice, liberty, etc., they learn to “think about their own thinking.”
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Metacognitive Strategies List
Here is a list of the Metacognitive strategies:
- Think Aloud
- Practice your syllabus as a roadmap
- Summon your prior knowledge
- Figure out how you learn best
- Test yourself
- Review your exams
- Organize your thoughts by Concept Mapping
- Querying self-reflective questions
- Beckon your prior knowledge
- Substitute Self-reflection
- Endorse Self-directed Learning.
- Deliver Opportunities for Assemble Errors.
- Resolve Problems with a Team
- Explain Strategies Directly
- Pre-assessment (Self-Assessment) of Content
Metacognitive Strategies Examples
Following Metacognitive strategies are beneficial to encourage Metacognition among children�s.
Open-ended: Give your child some space to reflect on his thinking: Can you tell me more about why you think that?
Non-blaming: It can be hard to stay open when kids are acting out, but asking them to think about their behavior can help them learn to manage difficult situations in a better way: Why do you think you got so upset when Dad changed the channel?
Solution-focused: Encourage him to think about how he can use his understanding to change things in the future: How could you handle that differently next time?
Process-oriented: Ask questions that help your child get a better idea of how his thought process works and how will you know when this drawing is finished?
Types of Metacognitive Leaners
Perkins (1992) defined four categories of metacognitive learners: tacit; aware; strategic; reflective.
�Tacit’ learners are unaware of their metacognitive knowledge. They do not think about any particular strategies for learning and merely accept if they know something or not.
�Aware’ learners know about some of the kinds of thinking that they do � generating ideas, finding evidence, etc. � but thinking is not necessarily deliberate or planned.
�Strategic’ learners organize their thinking by using problem-solving, grouping and classifying, evidence-seeking, decision making, etc. They know and apply the strategies that help them learn.
�Reflective’ learners are not only strategic about their thinking but they also reflect upon their learning whilst it is happening, considering the success or not of any strategies they’re using and then revising them as appropriate.
Metacognition in the Classroom
To generate vigorous classroom learning environment following should be kept in mind:
- To enhance metacognitive awareness following metacognitive skills may follow by student�s i.e. self- monitoring, concept mapping, skimming, rehearsing and self-test.
- Teaching Students to practice self-monitoring and evaluating by arranging self-assessment techniques for students associated with each topic and introducing mock sessions to involve the students to evaluate their learning.
- The teacher should ask questions about content from the leaners before, during and after the lesson to enhance metacognitive skills.
- Attainment practical strategies to use on lessons help create the learning environment to develop metacognitive skills.
- Instructors should always look to develop the responsibility of the students to enhance their own learning experiences. Rather than being unreceptive, the students harness their skills in a positive atmosphere, which helps them to gain utmost clarity and control over his or her own learning.
- The tutor should have a plan of action, which helps them solve a problem more efficiently. This might include jotting down of points while addressing a debate to help counter arguments.
- The teachers should essentially be a mentor than an instructor.
- The teacher should lay down a framework or methods by which students initially learn the craft of isolating steps and evaluating their own learning curve.
- The trainer should guide and motivate the students to enhance their self-reliance and confidence. The trainer should be aware of their credibility and ensure students that if they can do that it will help them immensely.
Why is Metacognition Important
- First, the beneficiary may be students that may help them to know themselves their own level of metacognitive awareness. Due to this, students become aware of their strength and weaknesses.
- If the undergraduate students develop their metacognitive skills at the initial level this action may help them in the future for Post-Graduation.
- The vast majority of students spontaneously pick up metacognitive knowledge and skills to a certain extent from their parents, their peers and especially from their teachers. However, students show a considerable variation in their metacognitive ability.
- Learners often show an increase in self-confidence when they build metacognitive skills. Self-efficacy improves motivation as well as learning success.
- By this study, students will also know which strategies can be used to increase the metacognitive level and during the puzzle structure, metacognition was a significant predictor of informational recall.
- Second, the beneficiary may be the teachers, teachers may know the importance of metacognitive awareness of their students and they know at which level of the metacognition their students may stand.
- On the other hand, the teacher will take steps to improve the level of metacognitive awareness of their students.
- Teachers facilitate communicative actions involving representations central to a domain can maximize students’ effort associated with constructing new schemas.
- For all age groups, metacognitive knowledge is crucial for efficient independent learning, because it fosters forethought and self-reflection, teachers� direct students learning in the proper ways to build understanding.
- This study has great importance for teachers in general and for undergraduate university students, as this study has collected a lot of information about knowledge of cognition and regulation about cognition.