Adrenal Gland |Introduction, Structure, Location & Function

By | September 21, 2019

Adrenal Gland

The Adrenal Gland has many metabolic roles within the body, that it completes by emitting hormones. the two adrenal glands among the body emit hormones that facilitate management the metabolism, endure sexual maturation as we tend to grow, and reply to stress.


The stress response is known to us just like as primal “fight or flight” response. it’s the knee-jerk reaction we tend to get upon seeing a life-endangering stimulation. corticosteroid is that the key endocrine hormone coordinating the processes that enable us to fight or run from this perceived danger. there’s obvious biological process whose worth in having the ability to try and do this. anything that shortens the time during which we will have interaction with our muscles and run will seemingly increase our probability of survival. but even a lot of low key situations trigger the discharge of corticosteroid from the adrenal gland.

Adrenal Gland

Adrenal Gland Function:

Adrenal glands play a vital role in boosting the ability to compose responses to stressors. It is used for helping individuals to escape the threat and, consequently, extending the lifespan of human beings. However, Adrenal Gland plays a vital role in almost every aspect of our everyday life.

Everyday Roles of the Adrenal glands:

  • Adrenal glands produce Aldosterone, with the help of this hormone our kidneys ( Renal Tubule) are able to normalize the blood pressure of the body with the aid of Salt and water exchange between the kidneys and our blood vessels.
  • In the absenteeism of Aldosterone, the kidney will drop a lot of salt to the urine which will induce water from our blood vessels and eliminate it from our body system. This will may lead to Dehydration.
  • With the help of Cortisol, the body is not only solitary able to retort anxiety in life-saving circumstances, but it also aids to regulate our body’s metabolic system by originating glucose ( Carbohydrates )manufacture and by mixing fatty acids and amino acids ( Proteins) to our cells.
  • By Adrenal Androgens, the Adrenal gland helps create differences between the sexes by initiating the development of our sex organs and secondary traits.

Adrenal Gland

Adrenal Gland Location

In two adrenal glands can be present on the uppermost part of each of kidneys. They can secrete hormones inside blood circulation which inspire numerous features of the anxiety reply.

Adrenal Gland

Adrenal Gland Anatomy              

Inside the body Adrenal Glands are two, triangular-shaped organs that are 1.5 inches in altitude and 3 inches in span. They are situated on the topmost of each kidney.

Each Adrenal gland is comprised of two distinct structures:

  1. Adrenal Cortex.

  2. Adrenal Medulla

Adrenal Gland

Adrenal Gland Structure

Adrenal Glands are basically triangular shape gland whose length is three inches. When Adrenal glands operation or biopsy is done two segments are instantly imagined. The outmost sheet of the Adrenal Gland is known as Adrenal Cortex, while the innermost deposit is termed as Adrenal Medulla.  In addition, having physical modifications which provide discrete appearance. Adrenal Cortex comprised of various zones which are composed of different cells. The outermost zone is   Zona Glomerulosa, while others are termed as Zona Fasciculate, and Zona Reticularis. This partition allows adaptability. The Adrenal Medulla will release Epinephrine in retort to emotional or physical tension, while the outer portion Adrenal Cortex will release Steroids, Aldosterone, and Cortisol.

Adrenal Cortex Zones:

Adrenal Glands, outer part Adrenal Cortex comprised of following zones:

Zona Glomerulosa: which release Mineralocorticoids like Cortisol.

Zona Fasciculata: which secretes Glucocorticoids.

Zona Reticularis: which release Androgens.

The three arteries supply blood to the Adrenal Glands:

  1. Superior Suprarenal Artery,
  2. Inferior Phrenic Artery branch,
  3. Middle Suprarenal Artery branch

Adrenal Gland Hormones

Adrenal Gland will yield several types of hormone such as:

  1. Androgens
  2. Cortisol
  3. Aldosterone,

1. Androgens

  • The Zona Reticularis of the Adrenal Cortex is accountable for discharging Androgen Hormones which will help to promote the Secondary Sex Characters in Human males.
  • Secondary Sex characteristics developed when puberty starts, Pubic Hair Growth, Adam’s Apple creation, Muscle, and Hair growth.
  • Females also custom Androgens secreted by the Ovaries and repurposed into Estrogen hormone.

2. Aldosterone

  • Aldosterone is an adrenal hormone released by the Zona Glomerulosa of the Cortex. This hormone is very important for our kidneys.
  • Our kidneys are the specialized organs of our body which are the body filters of our body help to eradicate waste materials excess fluid from the body.
  • Kidneys are also specialized for the reabsorption of the ions which we prerequisite to preserving an ionic balance and a virtuous blood pressure of the body.
  • In the fluid salt is an important ion, which breakdowns into trivial ionized particles inside a solution. Salt has the ability to moderate the levels of fluid in our vessels, directly fluctuating the blood pressure.
  • On the basis of diffusion if more salt is reabsorbed which may lead water to be reabsorbed into our vessels in larger amounts, just like this “water follows salt.”
  • Aldosterone has great ability to moderate the salt excretion by increasing or decreasing the number of salt ions (NaCl) frequencies in Nephron walls of our (kidneys) in the Glomerulus.
  • Aldosterone promotes the blood vessels to recollect more salt with the help of abundant salt channels, which in turn boosts the water reabsorption.
  • Due to this, concentrated urine formed, and vigorous blood pressure is also produced.

3. Cortisol

  • The Zona Fasciculata, produce stress hormones called Cortisol.
  • Cortisol is characteristically a steroid hormone which replies to worrying situations and when our blood sugar level drops also low.
  • Due to this condition, it will arouse gluconeogenesis, or glucose formation, to raise the low blood sugar level and will help in the metabolic cessation of nutriment.
  • It also conquers the immune system and declines the formation of the bones.
  • Vigorous amounts of cortisol upsurge our focus; however, long-lasting overexpression of cortisol may be harmful to humans by the terror of memory meddling, bone compactness damage, and heart disease in pretentious patients.
  • Adrenal Medulla exclusively produce Epinephrine and Norepinephrine.
  • These both are water-soluble hormones and answerable for providing us a “hurry” whenever we are challenged with a stressful situation.
  • Its properties are categorized by amplified breathing as well as heart rate, and a contraction of blood vessels that transmits blood flow to our muscles. This permits our muscles to directly involve in speedy movement.

Adrenal Gland Test

Adrenal inadequacy can be problematic to identify. Tests that measure the cortisol and aldosterone levels are used:

  • ACTH Stimulation Test:

This is the precise test for identifying Adrenal deficiency. Blood cortisol levels are measured previously and later on an artificial form of Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH), a hormone which is released by Anterior Pituitary, is provided by injection.

  • Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia Test:

The Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia test is used to regulate or find out how the Hypothalamus, Pituitary and Adrenal glands answer to anxiety condition. During this test, blood is strained to measure the blood glucose and cortisol levels, with the help of injection of fast-acting insulin. After this Blood glucose and cortisol amounts are measured again after intervals of 30, 45 and 90 minutes after the injection of insulin. The standard retort is for blood glucose levels to reduction (this represents the stress) and cortisol levels to rise.

Adrenal Gland Pain

Unfortunately, this kind of pain is common and doesn’t directly recommend a sickness of the adrenal cortex. In adrenocortical cancer, these symptoms typically are because of pressure caused by the tumor because it compresses organs, nerves and different structures around the adrenal. Some patients describe feeling full with no craving due to pressure on the abdomen and different abdominal organs.

Adrenal Gland Fatigue

Due to Adrenal Fatigue, various signs symptoms occur within the human body. Symptoms of Adrenal Insufficiency may include:

  • Low Blood Pressure
  • Lightheadedness
  • Body Aches
  • Unexplained Weight Loss
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of Body Hair
  • Skin Discoloration (Hyperpigmentation)

Adrenal Gland Disorders

The adrenal gland is continually producing hormones which are important and well-circulated inside the human body but, there is a still accidental risk off its imbalance production of hormones. If these glands intense gland or if there is a benign tumor present on the adrenal gland will become the reason of overproduction of Cortisol. This will upset our blood pressure, heart rate. Benign or Malignant both tumors might present on Adrenal gland tumors.

Adrenal Gland Tumor

There are several kinds of malignant tumors are present in the Adrenal Glands:

  1. Adrenocortical cancer will initiate in the adrenal cortex. There are usually two types of tumor.

The functioning Tumor is very common and will endure producing Cortisol, Aldosterone, and Androgens. Non-functioning tumors, on the other hand, not very common and stop hormone production due to which hormone will decrease.

  1. Adrenal Pheochromocytomas initiate in the Adrenal Medulla and they are very erratic.
  2. Adrenal Paragangliomas initiate inside or outside of the Adrenal Glands.

Due to Benign Adrenal Gland Tumor Cushing’s Syndrome may occur. Due to this disease cortisol hormone will overproduce and due to this functioning of Heart disturb. Cushing’s disease is very erratic, with only2-4 new individuals will damage as per one million Americans each year. Due to overproduction of cortisol might cause Adenoma, Benign Tumor somewhere on the adrenal gland, or Prednisone in the Humans.

Adrenal Gland