In humans, bones are inside of the body called Endoskeleton. The endoskeleton is the skeleton which presents in the interior of the body. Is gives structural support to the body and protects the internal organs and tissues of the body. Endoskeleton can be different in shape, complexity, and functions performed by it. The “true skeleton” made by mesoderm during embryogenesis. Many vertebrates have a skeleton which comprised of mineral tissues.
Bones are rigid organs formed by tissues in our body. The skeleton of vertebrates is mostly formed by bones. The main functions of bones are to give structural support to the body and the protection of internal organs. Bones also helps in the production of blood cells. There are two types of osseous tissues of bones that are different in their structure and distribution; Cortical bone and Cancellous bone.
- The Cortical Bone:
Cortical bone defines as the thicker outer surface of long bone which sheathes the bone cavity known as Medulla. Cortex is the outer shell or sheath made by cortical bone. Cortical bone is also known as lamellar or compact bone which gives the strength to all long bones of the body, such as the femur.
- The Cancellous Bone:
Cancellous bone is also known as spongy or trabecular bone. Cancellous bone is a higher surface area with less dense, weaker, soft and less stiff. It lies at the end of long bones, within the interior of vertebrae and proximal to joints. Distal end radius, proximal humerus are Cancellous bones.
Functions of the Endoskeleton:
There are many different functions performed by a Skeleton. Without a skeleton, the body is noting as it cannot perform even a single task. There are six main functions that are performed by the skeleton of the body, are structural support, locomotion, protection, blood cell production, storage, and endocrine regulation.
- Structural Support:
The most important functions of the skeleton are the gross functions, which can be observed by vision. Support of Body Structure is one of a gross function and can be seen. Like the steel beam of the building gives a structure or shape to the building and supports its weight, the same function for the skeleton. The skeleton gives shape and made the structure of the body and supports its weight.
Skeleton of the body also supports the locomotion of the body. Bones in skeleton attached to each other on the specific points known as Joints. With the help of these joints, bones facilitate the movement of the body. Some of the bones serve as the only support for muscles. The body cannot produce movement without a skeleton on its own.
Bones also protects the internal organs from outer damage or any type of injury. All the internal organs of the body are covered by the skeleton. For example, ribs protect our lungs and heart from any external damage and bones of the cranium (skull) protects our brain from any internal injury.
- Blood Cell Production:
Bones also serve as the production of blood cells. The softer connection of tissues that fill the most of the interior of bone referred to as bone marrow. There are two forms of bone marrow in our body; yellow marrow and red marrow. The yellow marrow has adipose tissue; these tissues serve as a source of energy. The red marrow contains hematopoiesis; in which the blood cells produce. Red marrow is responsible for the production of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Bones also perform the function of storage of fats and minerals. Bones also store calcium, and bone marrow stores iron in ferritin. Bones are not totally made up of calcium but the mixture of hydroxyapatite and chondroitin sulfate made 70% of bone.
- Endocrine Regulation:
A hormone (called osteocalcin) released by bone cells, which contribute to the regulation of glucose and fat deposition. Osteocalcin causes the increment of sensitivity, secretion, and reducing stores of fat.