Plant Cell Definition
For the living organisms of Kingdom Plantae, Plant cells are the functional unit of life. Plants cells are usually Eukaryotic cells. They have specialized peripheral Nucleus and other specialized structures along with nucleus also present which are called Organelles. Inside the plant cell, each organelle performs a specialized function according to its structure. Due to the presence of cell walls, chloroplasts, and central vacuole Plants cells are discriminated from the other organism’s cells.
Plant Cell Model:
Plant Cell Parts and Functions:
- Plant cells functional building block of plant life and is performing all of the functions which are essential for the plant’s life continuity.
- In the plants, cell chloroplast plants food making process Photosynthesis takes place efficiently. Photosynthesis is the process of producing Glucose from light energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
- Inside the plant cell, energy molecule Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is generated by the process of cellular respiration inside the organelle Mitochondria.
Types of Plant Cells
1. Parenchyma Cells
Parenchyma cells are major cells in a plant body. These cells are usually present in leaves and they play a vital role in photosynthesis and cellular respiration. These cells are also specialized for the storage of starches and proteins. They also help in repairing the wound on the plant body.
2. Collenchyma Cells
3. Sclerenchyma Cells
4. Xylem Cells
5. Phloem Cells
Phloem cells carry food and dissolved nutrients and transport them throughout the plant body. These cells help in the transportation of sap. The sap is basically a watery solution high concentration of sugars.
Plant Cell Structure
Chloroplasts are present in the plant. These organelles help in the process of photosynthesis. They are oval-shaped plant celled structures which consist of two membranes: an outer membrane, which creates the external surface of the chloroplast, and an inner membrane that present just beneath the outer membrane. Inside the chloroplast, there is a space present which is called the Stroma.
Chloroplasts consist of many flattened disks called thylakoids. These structures have high attentiveness of chlorophyll and carotenoids. These are the specialized materials for capturing light energy. These molecules also give plants their green colour. In vascular plants, Thylakoids are arranged or stacked on top of one another which is called Grana.
Plant cells have a large central vacuole. A vacuole is basically a trivial sphere of membranes. Vacuole has the ability to store fluid, ions, and other molecules of cells. They are in simple words large vesicles. The large central vacuole of a plant cell helps to maintain the turgor pressure of the cell. They also play a vital role in the removal of waste products from the plant’s body.
Plant Cell Wall
Outside the cell membrane plants have a tough layer which is known as the cell wall. Its main function is to give strength to plant body cells and also in the establishment of turgidity. In plants, the cell wall consists of cellulose, laterally other molecules like hemicellulose, pectin, and lignins also present the structure of the cell wall of the plant. The configuration of the plant’s cell wall differentiates it from the cell walls of other creatures. Plant cells consist of two layers of the cell wall. First, one is the primary cell wall that is a flexible layer and originated on the outside of a growing plant cell. The secondary cell wall is a tough, thick layer that is formed inside the primary plant cell wall.
Besides this above structures Plant cells also consists of many other organelles that are necessary to perform life processes. The nucleus is a central organelle that controls all the functions of the cells which consist of genetic material called Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is a hereditary material that consists of instructions for protein synthesis. Growth and cell division also controlled by Nucleus. Proteins are manufactured in ribosomes, improved in the endoplasmic reticulum, and then creased, organized, and wrapped in the Golgi apparatus.
Within the liquid material is present which is commonly called Cytosol. Mostly it is composed of water, and ionic compounds like proteins, potassium, calcium ions. Cytosol and organelles present inside the cell except for the nucleus, are known as cytoplasm. Throughout the cytoplasm of the plant cell, there is a network of filaments and tubules present which is known as cytoskeleton whose main function is to gives definite shape to the cell and also delivers the asset to a cell. Peroxisomes also present in the cytosol.
Plant Cell and Animal Cell