Plant Cell

Plant Cell Definition

For the living organisms of Kingdom Plantae, Plant cells are the functional unit of life. Plants cells are usually Eukaryotic cell. They have specialized peripheral Nucleus and other specialized structures along with nucleus also present which are called Organelles. Inside the plant cell, each organelle performs a specialized function according to its structure. Due to the presence of cell walls, chloroplasts, and central vacuole Plants cells are discriminated from the other organism’s cells.

Plant Cell Model:

Here in the plant’s cells diagram, various parts of a plant cell are highlighted.

Plant Cell

Plant Cell Parts and Functions:

Functions of Plant Cell are described below in the given content.

  1. Plant cells functional building block of plants life and is performing all of the functions which are essential for the plant’s life continuity.
  2. In the plants, cell chloroplast plants food making process Photosynthesis take place efficiently. Photosynthesis is the process of producing Glucose from light energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
  3. Inside the plant cell, energy molecule Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is generated by the process of cellular respiration inside the organelle Mitochondria.

Types of Plant Cells

Commonly there are five types of plant cells which perform different functions:

1. Parenchyma Cells

Parenchyma cells are major cells in a plant body. These cells are usually present in leaves and they play a vital role in photosynthesis and cellular respiration. These cells are also specialized for the storage of starches and proteins. They also help in repairing the wound on the plant body.

2. Collenchyma Cells

Collenchyma cells are elongated, thick-walled cells. They provide provision to growing plants parts. They are and can grow and change shape as a plant grows.

3. Sclerenchyma Cells

Sclerenchyma cells are dead cells which have very thick cell walls. These hard cells are the foremost supporting cells in the plants where the process of growth was ceased.

4. Xylem Cells

Xylem Cells conduct water throughout the plant body. These cells transference water and nutrients throughout a whole plant.

5. Phloem Cells

Phloem Cells carry food and dissolved nutrients and transport it throughout the plant body. These cells help in the transportation of sap. The sap is basically a watery solution high concentration of sugars.

Plant Cell Structure

The plant cell is a basic functional unit of plants life consists of various parts. Each structure inside the plant cell is specialized to perform a specific function.


Chloroplasts are present in the plant. These organelles help in the process of photosynthesis. They are oval-shaped plant celled structures which consist of two membranes: an outer membrane, which creates the external surface of the chloroplast, and an inner membrane that present just beneath the outer membrane. Inside the chloroplast, there is a space present which is called the Stroma.

Chloroplasts consist of many flattened disks called thylakoids. These structures have high attentiveness of chlorophyll and carotenoids. These are the specialized materials for capturing light energy. These molecules also give plants their green color. In vascular plants, Thylakoids are arranged or stacked on top of one another which is called Grana.


Plant cells have a large central vacuole. A vacuole is basically a trivial sphere of membranes. Vacuole has ability to store fluid, ions, and other molecules of cells. They are in simple words large vesicles. The large central vacuole of a plants cell helps to maintain turgor pressure of the cell. They also play a vital role in the removal of waste products from the plant’s body.

Plant Cell Wall

Outside the cell membrane plants have a tough layer which is known as the cell wall. Its main function is to give strength to plant body cells and also in the establishment of turgidity. In plants, the cell wall consists of cellulose, laterally other molecules like hemicellulose, pectin, and lignins also present the structure of the cell wall of the plant. The configuration of the plant’s cell wall differentiates it from the cell walls of other creatures. Plant cells consist of two layers of the cell wall. First, one is the primary cell wall that is a flexible layer and originated on the outside of a growing plant cell. The secondary cell wall is tough, thick layer which is formed inside the primary plant cell wall.

Other Organelles

Besides this above structures Plant cells also consists of many other organelles which are necessary to perform life processes. The nucleus is central organelle which controls all the functions of the cells which consist of genetic material called Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is a hereditary material which consists of instructions for protein synthesis. Growth and cell division also controlled by Nucleus. Proteins are manufactured in ribosomes, improved in the endoplasmic reticulum, and then creased, organized, and wrapped in the Golgi apparatus.


Inside the plant cell Mitochondria is also found. Which help in the production of ATP by cellular respiration.


Within the liquid material is present which is commonly called Cytosol. Mostly it is composed of water, and ionic compounds like proteins, potassium, calcium ions. Cytosol and organelles present inside the cell except for nucleus, are known as cytoplasm. Throughout the cytoplasm of the plant cell, there is a network of filaments and tubules present which is known as cytoskeleton whose main function is to gives definite shape to the cell and also delivers the asset to a cell. Peroxisomes also present in the cytosol.

Plant Cell and Animal Cell

Plant Cell

Related Biology Terms

Eukaryotic cell – It is a large cell consisting of a large nucleus with the well-developed organelles.

Prokaryotic cell – As compare to Eukaryotic cell these cells are small in size. In these cells no specialized true nucleus is present and except ribosomes no other organelles are present.

Thylakoid –  these are a flattened disk-like structure which is present inside the chloroplast which consists of chlorophyll pigments which place a vital role in the process of photosynthesis.

Cell wall – it an outermost layer of a plant cell which consists of cellulose.