Golgi Body Definition:
Golgi apparatus was discovered in 1898 by an Italian biologist Camillo Golgi. Golgi apparatus is also called the Golgi complex or Golgi body. Golgi apparatus is a set of the single membrane-bound organelle. That is found in eukaryotic cells only. Eukaryotic cells are those cells which have clearly defined nuclei. Golgi Apparatus Function described Below.
Golgi Apparatus Function
Mainly Golgi apparatus is made up of a series of flattened, single membrane stacked pouches called Cisternae. Normally inside the cell only one Golgi apparatus is present while in the plant cell there are several hundreds of Golgi bodies are present. The Golgi apparatus is responsible for transporting, adapting, and wrapping proteins as well as lipids into small vesicles. That is delivered to targeted destinations inside the cell. Inside the cell Golgi apparatus is in the cytoplasm succeeding to the endoplasmic reticulum and near to the nucleus of the cell.
The Golgi vesicles from the rough endoplasmic reticulum were reached at the cis face of the Golgi apparatus. At that place, these Golgi vesicles are fused with the membrane of Golgi Apparatus and empty its internal material into the lumen.
Golgi Apparatus Structure :
Golgi complex is a smooth membrane system consists of flattened, single membrane vesicles which are often stacked. Normally in the cell, there are round about 40 to 100 stacks present. while in each stack there are about four to eight cisternae exist. Golgi apparatus is made up of a series of flattened, single membrane stacked pouches called Cisternae. Golgi apparatus structure is divided into two main sections: one is the Cis Golgi and second is the Trans Golgi. Due to its structure, the Golgi body is polar in nature. Cis Golgi help in receiving newly synthesized proteins from the inner lumen of the rough Endoplasmic Reticulum.
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One end of the stack of the Golgi apparatus is recognized as the cis face which is also known as the ‘receiving department” of the Golgi apparatus. While on the other hand the other end is known as the trans face that is recognized as the “shipping department” of the Golgi apparatus. The cis face of the Golgi apparatus is closely accompanying with the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell.
Golgi Apparatus Analogy:
Golgi Apparatus is the analogy to the post office because of its ability to transport material at their final destination inside the cell.
Golgi Apparatus Function:
- Golgi apparatus is the major site of synthesis of carbohydrates
- These are organelles to where the newly synthesized proteins are transferred and temporarily stored.
- Small vesicles generate peripherally by a pinching – off process.
- Golgi Apparatus small vacuoles in which secretory products are concentrated help in the synthesis of carbohydrates.
- The Golgi bodies also play a significant role in the production of proteoglycans.
- The proteoglycans are those molecules that are present in the extracellular matrix of the animal cells and play a vital role for the mechanical support to the cell.
- The Golgi bodies help in the process of the sulfation process of many important molecules.
- Golgi apparatus provide ATP for the process of phosphorylation of molecules.
- Glycosylation occurs in the Golgi apparatus.
- Golgi bodies help is lipids transportation.
- The enzymes of the cisternae have the high ability to adjust or modify proteins by the addition of carbohydrates and phosphate by the process of glycosylation and phosphorylation respectively.
- Glycoproteins are synthesized by the Golgi Apparatus.
- In the endocrine cell, Golgi Apparatus is responsible for the production of Hormones.