Cell Cycle Definition
The cell cycle is the procedure due to which a cell replicates its genetic material and produced the other rudiments of the cell and at the end of the process cell divided into two daughter cells the whole process is known as cell cycle”. Detail of Phases of the Cell Cycle Discusses Below.
Phases of the Cell Cycle
Phases of the cell cycle: Every cell has a different duration of the cell cycle. A distinctive eukaryotic cell cycle is demonstrated by human cells in culture. These eukaryotic cells division cycle completed in approximately every 24 hours. The cell cycle has the extreme variable duration but mostly it is ~24 h in mammalian cells. The cell cycle is short as about 8 minutes in embryos of Flies. Cell cycle may be as long as a year e.g. cell cycle of some liver cells completed in almost the year. In this situation cell utilized most of their energies in performing other functions rather apart than cell growth and division.
Fundamentally cell cycle is divided into two basic phases of the Cell Cycle:
- Mitotic Phase (M phase)
The interphase is basically called the resting phase of the cell because in this time duration cell is preparing himself for division by experiencing both cell growth as well as DNA replication in a methodical arranged manner. The interphase is furtherly divided into three phases:
- G1 phase (Gap 1)
- S phase (Synthesis)
- G2 phase (Gap 2)
While the mitotic phase is division phase in which parent cell is divided into daughter cells. This phase is furtherly divided into two main phases:
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Phase of interphase
- G 1 phase of the cell cycle
The G1 phase includes two parallels processes, first interluding between mitosis and initiation of replication of DNA. In this phase, the cell is metabolically active and continuously grows. But in G1 phase replication of DNA will not occur.
- S phase:
S- phase usually knows synthesis phase. In this period synthesis or replication of DNA takes place. In this time the quantity of DNA per cell doubles. In the S phase, the preliminary amount of DNA is doubled. If it is 2C in the S phase increases to 4C. But in this phase, there is no increase in the number of chromosomes. If the cell is the diploid or 2n number of chromosomes at the G1 stage after the S phase the number of chromosomes remains the same, but DNA is doubled. During this phase duplication of centrioles duplicates also occur in the cytoplasm.
- G2 phase:
During the G2 phase synthesis of proteins are done which are used by the cell in preparation for mitosis although cell growth continues.
The mitotic phase is represented by M Phase. This phase is the actual cell division phase. During the cell cycle, mitotic phase comes after the interphase. This phase is subdivided into two phases:
The interphase continues more than 95% of the total time duration of the cell cycle. The Mitotic Phase starts with the division of the nucleus, conforming to the separation of daughter chromosomes called karyokinesis and usually ends with the division of cytoplasm called cytokinesis.
Cell Cycle Checkpoints Diagram