All the animals in an ecosystem are known as Fauna. Fauna is not mean furry animals, as like bears, etc. But also include aquatic individuals, as like coral, jellyfish, and on land as like host of insects. Fauna derived from the name of a Roman goddess, but remember for that meaning as similar to fauna sound like “fawn”, and fawns mean the parts of the animal kingdom. So, fauna refers the animal life all over the world. It is the study about the characteristics of animals of a region, period or specific environment.
Fauna defines the life of all the animals in a specific region, time period, or both of them. The Flora is similar to the fauna; the only difference is Flora is the life of plants in an ecosystem. Flora is the foundation for the all other life of an area. Flora makes their food by own with the help of sunlight. No animals live without Flora. The “Flora and Fauna” of a certain region is the description of all life in the area, including both plants like organisms and animal-like organisms. In scientific term and our understanding of the relationships between plant and animal organisms has forced the science to adopt the more description of Taxonomy and Cladistics.
History of Fauna:
A naturalist Carl Linnaeus was first used Fauna as a term of biological study. He describes the Fauna as a term which defines all animals of a region or area, opposes to the plants. Flora dubbed the life of all plants in a specific region. So, the Flora and Fauna is the description of all the life of both plants and animals in a specific region or time period. Linnaeus had borrowed the term of Fauna from Greek and Roman mythology.
In Greek mythology, the goat-legged offspring of a powerful god and a wood nymph is the god, Pan. This leads him to become a representative god of the wildlife. While in Roman mythology, this persona adopts in the gods Faunus and Fauna. It helps to rises the numbers of creation of man which populated the mythology. In 1745, Carl Linnaeus use the word for his formal work of the study of animals of Sweden Fauna Suecica, which roughly translated means that the “Wildlife of Sweden”.
By following his studied or idea, naturalists started the use of Flora and Fauna as the term to the identification of various individuals in a Taxonomic Hierarchy. The flora is the study of everything in the kingdom Plantae, and the fauna is the study of kingdom Animalia. The Fauna definition expanded and changed over the years. As, when genotype became a reality, and it is defined that there are actually three domains of life, the Archaea, the Bacteria, and the Eukarya. As the changing occurs, the formal phasing out of the word Fauna also changes. While the Flora definition remains to maintain as “any organism in the Plantae kingdom”. Currently, Fauna describes as “any organisms in the domain of Archaea and Bacteria including the kingdom Animalia”.
Flora and Fauna are the exclude the study of kingdom Fungi, which was not referred to as plant but now refer as its own distinct kingdom.
Examples of Fauna:
Some examples of Fauna are described below:
Fauna of the Great Plains, 2018:
In the Great Plains of the United States, a survey shows many of species, as many species of birds from pheasants to the eagles. Also find species of mammals, as from tiny field mouse to the mighty bison. Many other groups also represented as from the reptiles to the worms. The soil and waters are also teeming with Fauna on the microscopic level. Even water is too hot or acidic for normal Fauna as host of thermophilic or acidophilic bacteria and other individuals. These evolved to deal with harsh conditions. In present, by taking the entirety of life on the Great Plains, with the subtraction of all the plants, Fauna is represented. This will show the large and intangible collection of many distinct species of interrelation.
Fauna of the Great Plains, 100 Million Years Ago:
By taking the observation of back time as 100 million years ago, the fauna of the Great Plains would look very different than now day. As it would be in the same place, but the environment would be much different. Hundred million years ago, glaciers had melted to a low, and a vast inland sea had spread across the continental Plains of United States. A vast inland sea covered almost entirely the Great Plains. In an inland sea, there was a variety of monsters, as from first modern sharks to giant marine reptiles. Modern bony fishes evolved as well as a variety of many other marine organisms. In the vast sea, all sorts of evolving Arthropods, as from early starfish to horseshoe crabs, are found. Historical Great Plain fauna would include microscopic diatoms and zooplankton and algae, which has the base of the food chain at the time. The land was colonized by the terrestrial organisms as well as glaciers reformed. This is how the fauna of a specific region can change easily over time.
Gut Fauna is a popular term of fauna in these days. It means the creatures living inside of the digestive tract. Almost all animals including humans have a complex Symbiotic relationship with those organisms which harbored within them. There are barriers in place of the body in order to keep these organisms from any infection for the body. These organisms help to digest many types of food.
In other words, the Gut Fauna referred to as the microbes, because these creatures have a unique ecosystem. There are many other species of bacteria and eukaryotes, which works for helping in digestion of food, and each of them fills a unique niche in the ecosystem. As scientists try to fully understand the study of the microbiome of the digestive system, the mainstream science confirmed that there are many diets and Probiotics presents which has positive effects on the fauna of the microbiome.
Fauna and Flora
Pakistan contains a long stretch of high mountains in its north and north-west, plateaus in Baluchistan and Potohar, plains of Indus and patches of deserts in the geographical area of Punjab and Sindh. This environmental and climatically variation supports a massive diversity to every plant and animals’ species. Therefore, once we speak of flora, we mean that we are talking about plants whole life cycle and once we speak of fauna, we mean that we are discussing whole animal life cycle. Our interest in flora and fauna of West Pakistan isn’t only because of our need to know about our plants and animals but also our economy and environments rely upon them. It’s our duty to take extra care of those valuable gifts of nature.
What is Flora?
The word “flora” refers to the plants occurring inside a given region additionally on the publication of scientific descriptions of these plants
Flora in Pakistan
Our country has representatives of all species of plants that you had already studied. Although all of them are vital in their own manner, forests are particularly noteworthy. Forests and forestry have recognized the backbone of our economy. They regulate the qualities of water within the rivers by preventing the free flow of soil in water by holding it with their roots. They stop the formation of deserts, manage water logging and maintain the number of salts within the soil and regulate the temperature of the atmosphere. They not only provide oxygen to the air however additionally provide food and shelter to animals (wild-life). They’re an integral component of our ecosystem. Are you able to guess what might happen to our wild-life if forests are cut down? A number of the economically vital flowering and non-flowering plants of Asian country are mentioned below:
The high mountains within the Northern and North Western are component of Pakistan, because of the adequate snowstorm, support thick forests. These forests contain trees like Blue Pine, Chirr Pine, Chilgoza Pine, Deodar, Fir, Juniper, and Olives, etc.
In the plains, several crops are cultivated that fulfill our nutritional values and other various necessities. These crops comprised of Wheat, Maize, Rice, Sugar Cane, Sugar Beet, Pea, Potato, Tomato, Onion, Garlic, Chili, Turnip, Radish Carrot, Cauliflower, Several Kinds of cereal, Grains, and Cotton, etc.
Forests of desert plants like Acacia Plants are found within the areas wherever there are less rainfall and insufficiency of water. Trees of Sheesham, Mulberry, Willow, Poplar, Neem, etc. Are found in irrigated lands like Changa Manga. These forests play a key role in providing us wood for making articles of furniture, sports product and fuel.
Pakistan is additionally rich in fruit-bearing trees like Mangoes, Apples, Apricots, Peaches, Oranges, Bananas, Walnut, and Almonds, etc. Several plants are cultivated for decorative purpose e.g. Chrysanthemum, Roses, and Jasmines, etc. The hills and plains of our country possess numerous kinds of grasses, which provide fodder for our grazing animals. Still, an oversized variety of plants like Typha, Hydrilla, and plenty of varieties of alga are found in water ponds, lakes, streams, and stream. A huge variety of marine plants are found in oceans and coastal regions of our country.
The above-mentioned plants do not exclusively give us food however they are also necessary for their medicative values. Some plants create thick forests from that we get timber whereas some plants are cultivated for decorative uses. Is it not a decent plan to organize a list of plants found in your locality? It’ll increase your information about the flora of Pakistan. Classification of flora bacteria is also very wide.
Flora is basically the original app for tree planting by multi-users.