Chloroplasts Definition Biology: The chloroplast is the organelle that has the ability to use light as a source of energy for sugar synthesis from water and carbon dioxide is a special feature of certain plant cells. This process termed photosynthesis is carried out by these organelles. Chloroplast Function Described Below:
Chloroplast Structure and Function
It’s complex in nature. These organelles are commonly ellipsoidal in structures and usually bounded by membranes. The outer membrane surrounds is an outer membrane but also containing a number of internal membranes.
Ultra Structure of Chloroplast:
Internally, it consists of a series of membranes arranged in the parallel sheets called Lamellae. These Lamellas are supported in a homogeneous matrix or material called the Stroma. The Lamella membranes are arranged in the form of thin sacs that are known as called Thylakoids.
Thylakoids are the structures that contain chlorophyll. Thylakoids structures are stacked on top of one another and therefore forming the structures called Grana. Lamellar membranes are connected to the Grana are called Stroma Lamellae.
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Chloroplast Diagram :
There is the following function :
- This organelle with the nucleus and cell membrane and ER are the key organelles of pathogen defense.
- The most important function of the chloroplast is to make food through the process of photosynthesis.
- Food is prepared in the form of sugars.
- Inside this organelle during the process of photosynthesis sugar and oxygen are made using light energy, water, and carbon dioxide.
- Light reactions take place on the membranes of the thylakoids.
- Chloroplasts, like the mitochondria, use the potential energy of the H+ ions or the hydrogen ion gradient to generate energy in the form of ATP.
- The dark reactions also known as the Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma.
- Production of NADPH2 molecules and oxygen as a result of the photolysis of water.
- BY the utilization of assimilatory powers the 6-carbon atom is broken into two molecules of phosphoglyceric acid also perform in Stroma.