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Mushroom Nutrition | Definition | Classification

Mushroom Definition: Mushrooms are basically important residents of the minor forest. Mushroom’s, are grown on the most of plentiful biomolecule of this Planet. These biomolecules are mostly Cellulose. Mushrooms are the world’s greatest unexploited possessions of Nutrition and might be Appetizing food for the future. Mushroom Nutrition values are very high due to the presence of high Protein content, fewer Fats and Cholesterol.

Mushroom Nutrition

Mushrooms are stated as a Macro-Fungus physique. They have an Idiosyncratic Fruiting body that might be Epigeous or Hypogeous. Sometime Mushrooms are large as enough to be seen with the naked eyes and to be picked from land by hand.

Mushroom Nutrition

From the lower of Cretaceous Period, it is Demonstrated from the Fossil Records that Mushrooms occurred on the earth even before man appeared on the planet. The fruiting body of the Mushroom only seen by naked eyes while rest of the mushroom-like Mycelium remains underground. Mushrooms have versatile nature which bargains Tremendous Applications. Mushrooms can be used as Food and Medicines above and beyond Ecological Key roles. Mushroom Nutrition is described below:

Mushroom Nutrition

Mushroom Structure

Mushroom is Fungi producing Fleshing Body consists of following structures:

  1. Pileus
  2. Volva
  3. Lamellae
  4. Annulus
  5. Mycelial threads
  6. Annulus
  7. Scale
  8. Stapes

Mushroom Nutrition

Cap or Pileus:

It is the upper Expanded Mushroom part. While the surface of Mushroom is the Pileus.

Cup or Volva:

The volva is a Cup-Shaped structure which is present at the base of the mushroom. All mushrooms did not have a Cup or Volva.

Mushroom Nutrition

Gills or Lamellae:

Gills are basically Radially arranged series from the center. Lamellae are the flat surfaces positioned on the underneath of the Cap. Inside the Gills or Lamellae Spores are made.

Mushroom Nutrition

Mycelial Threads:

Mycelial Threads are the thread like root filaments which help in Anchoring the Mushroom inside the soil.

Ring or Annulus:

The Annulus is basically a Skirt-like Ring of tissue which encircles the stem of Mature Mushrooms. The ring is the residue of the veil. And the veil is the tissue that joins the stem and the Cap before the gills are visible and the fruiting body matures. While it should be considered that all Mushrooms did not have a ring.

Mushroom Nutrition

Scale:

Scales are the Rough Patches on Caps surface. Scales are the tissues which are miscellanies of the veil.

Stalk or Stapes:

Stapes are the foremost backing of the mushroom. Stapes is the part which it is topped by the Cap. Not all mushrooms have a Stalk.

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Mushroom Classification

Classification of Mushrooms described below in the Chart:

Mushroom Nutrition

Mushroom Names List and Pictures

In the following Species, Mushroom Nutrition is very high.

Mushroom Nutrition

Salty Mushroom

Mushroom Nutrition

Pavement Mushroom

Mushroom Nutrition

Field Mushroom

Mushroom Nutrition

Clustered Mushroom

Mushroom Nutrition

Rosy Wood Mushroom

Mushroom Nutrition

Tufted Wood Mushroom

Mushroom Nutrition

Scaly Wood Mushroom

Mushroom Nutrition

Inky Mushroom

Mushroom Nutrition

Lilac Mushroom

Mushroom Nutrition

Blushing Wood Mushroom

Mushroom Nutrition

Wood Mushroom

Mushroom Nutrition

Yellow Stainer

Mushroom Nutrition

Poplar Field Cap

Mushroom Nutrition

Bearded Field Cap

Mushroom Nutrition

Solitary Amanita

Mushroom Nutrition

Starfish Fungus

Mushroom Nutrition

Pale Bolete

Mushroom Nutrition

Mushroom Nutrition is very diverse study. Mushroom Nutrition is described below in the following text :

Protein: 

  1. In the Mushrooms, Protein content is between 19% and 35% of dry weight.
  2. Protein contented of mushrooms depends on the confirmation of the Substratum, Size of Pileus, Harvest Time and Mushroom Species.
  3. The amount of Rudimentary Protein of Mushrooms grades below Animal Meats but it positions is well above most other foods including Milk.
  4. In 1987, Scientist up-to-date that Mushrooms are very beneficial for Vegetarian because they contain some Essential Amino Acids which are found in Animal Proteins. In 1989 Rai and Saxena practical that lessening in the protein content of Mushroom during storing.

Fat:

  1. In the Mushrooms Fats content ranges between 1-8%. But inside the Mushroom content of Linoleic Acids is very high. Due to which mushrooms are considered Healthy food.
  2. Inside the Mushrooms, the Fat content is very low as related to Carbohydrates and Proteins. The fats which are present in Fruiting Bodies of Mushroom are Unsaturated Fatty Acids.
  3. In 2006, Yilmaz and Pedneault reported that Fat Element in mushrooms is principally composed of unsaturated fatty acids.

Vitamins:

Mushrooms are a virtuous source of vitamins such as Thiamine (Vitamin B). Riboflavin (vitamin B2), Niacin, Bio Tine and Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C), Folic Acid.

Minerals:

  1. Mushrooms Fruiting bodies possessed the high level of Mineral Elements.
  2. In Hight amount following foremost Mineral present in Mushrooms are K, P, Na, Ca, Mg.
  3. In the Mushroom elements like Cu, Zn, Fe, Mo, Cd present in Minor amount.
  4. Mushrooms also comprised of substantial amounts of Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium, calcium, Magnesium, iron and Zinc.

Carbohydrates:

  1. In the Mushrooms Carbohydrate content ranges between 50 to 65% on the basis of dry weight.
  2. About 11% of free Sugars present in the Mushrooms.
  3. Free Sugars present in the Mushrooms are Raffinose, Sucrose, Glucose, Fructose, and Xylose.

Mushroom Scientific Name

Scientific Names of the Mushroom Cultivated commonly enlisted in the chart:

Mushroom Nutrition

Characteristics of Mushroom

  1. Mushroom is the most imperative Fungal crop that can be cultivated on several agricultural residues.
  2. There are about twenty different mushrooms growing commercially all over the world. These mushrooms are specifically known for their attractive flavors and textures that make a food delicious.
  3. They not only contain protein, vitamin, and minerals but also are characterized by low calorie with little fat and very less sugar.
  4.  They provide a high amount of qualitative nutrition required for our growth and enhance our immune system.
  5. The cultivation of mushroom was first started in the middle of the seventeenth century in France. Thereafter, it was flourished in different countries.
  6. At present, more than 100 countries in the world produce mushrooms commercially.
  7. Mushrooms have been found operative against Cancer, Cholesterol Reduction, Stress, Insomnia, Asthma, Allergies and Diabetes.
  8. In the Mushroom high amount of Proteins is present due to which, they can be used to bridge the Protein Malnutrition Gap.
  9. Mushrooms as purposeful foods are used as Nutrient supplements to boost Immunity.
  10. In the Mushrooms Low Starch and Cholesterol content is present. Which is beneficial for Diabetic and Heart Patients.
  11. Mushrooms One-third of the iron always present in the available form. Their Polysaccharide content is used as Anticancer Drugs.
  12. Mushrooms are also used to combat HIV successfully.

Mushroom Cultivation Procedure

Due to diverse Mushroom Nutrition, there are various Techniques for cultivating Mushrooms which vary from species to species. The process of Mushroom Cultivation can be summarized stepwise as follows:

  1. Preparation and pouring of agar media into Petri dishes.
  2. Pouring of agar media into Petri dishes.
  3. Germination of spores.
  4. Isolation of pure Mushroom Mycelium.
  5. Expansion of Mycelial Mass growth on agar media.
  6. Preparation of grain media.
  7. Inoculation of grain media with pure mycelium grown on agar media.
  8. Incubation of inoculated grain media (spawn).
  9. Laying out grain spawn onto trays.
  10. Inoculation of grain spawn into bulk substrates.
  11. The casing is done. In which covering of substrate with a moist mixture of peat and other materials.
  12. Initiation is done in the spawn. In which lowering of temperature, increasing of humidity up to 95%, increasing air circulation in the spawn, decreasing carbon dioxide and or introducing light.
  13. After Initiation Cropping in done. In which following parameters are done like maintenance of temperature, lowering of humidity up to 85-92%, maintenance air circulation, carbon dioxide, and light levels.

References: 

  1. Bano Z, Rajarathanum S (1988). Pleurotus mushroom part II. Chemical composition nutritional value, post-harvest physiology, preservation, and role as human food crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 27: 87-158.
  2. Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Grundy SM, Brinkley LJ (2000).  Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.  N. Eng.  J.  Med., 342:13921398.
  3. Harsh NSK, Rai BK, Tiwari DP (1993). Use of Ganoderma lucidum in folk medicine.  J. Trop. Biodivers., 1: 324-326.
  4. Ferreira ICFR, Baptista P, Vilas-Boas M, Barros L (2007). Free-radical scavenging capacity and reducing the power of wild edible mushrooms from northeast Portugal: individual cap and stipe activity. Food Chem., 100: 1511-1516.
  5. Jiskani MM (2001). The energy potential of mushrooms. Dawn Econ. Bus. Rev., p. 4. Jones